Basis of Presentation, Summary of Significant Accounting Policies and Recent Accounting Pronouncements
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2022
|Organization, Consolidation and Presentation of Financial Statements [Abstract]|
|Basis of Presentation, Summary of Significant Accounting Policies and Recent Accounting Pronouncements||
Note 4. Basis of Presentation, Summary of Significant Accounting Policies and Recent Accounting Pronouncements
Basis of presentation and principles of consolidation
The accompanying consolidated financial statements of the Company include the accounts of the Company and its wholly or majority owned and controlled subsidiaries. Consolidated subsidiaries’ results are included from the date the subsidiary was formed or acquired. Intercompany investments, balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation. Non–controlling interests represents the minority equity investment in the Company’s subsidiaries, plus the minority investors’ share of the net operating results and other components of equity relating to the non–controlling interest.
The accompanying audited consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and its wholly owned subsidiaries. All intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation. Amounts disclosed are in thousands except for share, per share, Bitcoin, and miner amounts, or as noted.
Use of estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the balance sheet and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reporting periods. Actual results could differ significantly from those estimates. The most significant accounting estimates inherent in the preparation of the Company’s financial statements include estimates associated with valuing contingent consideration for a business combination and periodic reassessment of its fair value, allocating the fair value of purchase consideration to assets acquired and liabilities assumed in business acquisitions, revenue recognition, valuing the derivative asset classified under Level 3 fair value hierarchy, determining the useful lives and recoverability of long-lived assets, impairment analysis of goodwill, fixed assets, and finite-lived intangibles, stock-based compensation, and the valuation allowance associated with the Company’s deferred tax assets.
Certain prior period amounts have been reclassified to conform to the current period presentation. The reclassifications did not have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements and related disclosures. The impact on any prior period disclosures was immaterial.
Cash and cash equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents consist of cash on hand and highly liquid investments. We consider any highly liquid investments with an original maturity of three months or less at acquisition to be cash equivalents. From time to time, the Company’s cash account balances exceed the balances as covered by the Federal Deposit Insurance System. The Company has never suffered a loss due to such excess balances. For all periods presented, the Company had no cash equivalents.
The Company’s accounts receivable balance consists of amounts due from its data center hosting and engineering customers. The Company records accounts receivable at the invoiced amount less an allowance for any potentially uncollectable accounts under the current expected credit loss (“CECL”) impairment model and presents the net amount of the financial instrument expected to be collected. The CECL impairment model requires an estimate of expected credit losses, measured over the contractual life of an instrument, that considers forecasts of future economic conditions in addition to information about past events and current conditions. Based on this model, the Company considers many factors, including the age of the balance, collection history, and current economic trends. Bad debts are written off after all collection efforts have ceased.
Allowances for credit losses are recorded as a direct reduction from an asset’s amortized cost basis. Credit losses and recoveries are recorded in selling, general and administrative expenses in the consolidated statements of operations. Recoveries of financial assets previously written off are recorded when received. For the years ended December 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020, the Company did not record any credit losses or recoveries.
Based on the Company’s current and historical collection experience, management recorded an allowance for doubtful accounts of $1.9 million as of December 31, 2022. No allowance was recorded as of December 31, 2021.
Bitcoin purchased are recorded at cost and Bitcoin awarded to the Company through its mining activities are accounted for in connection with the Company’s revenue recognition policy.
Bitcoin held are accounted for as intangible assets with indefinite useful lives. Bitcoin is sold on a FIFO basis and measured for impairment whenever indicators of impairment are identified based on the intraday low quoted price of Bitcoin. To the extent an impairment loss is recognized, the loss establishes the new cost basis of the Bitcoin. Subsequent reversal of impairment losses is not permitted. Bitcoin is classified on our balance sheet as a current asset due to the Company’s ability to sell it in a highly liquid marketplace and its intent to liquidate its Bitcoin to support operations when needed.
Purchases and sales of Bitcoin by the Company and Bitcoin awarded to the Company are included within Cash flows from operating activities on the Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows. Any realized gains or losses from sales of Bitcoin are included in Operating income (expense) on the Consolidated Statements of Operations.
For equity investments, the Company initially records equity investments at cost then adjusts the carrying value of such equity investments through earnings when there is an observable transaction involving the same or a similar investment with the same issuer or upon an impairment.
The Company recognizes revenue in a manner that depicts the transfer of promised goods or services to customers for amounts that reflect the consideration to which the Company expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. The following five steps are applied to achieve that core principle:
In order to identify the performance obligations in a contract with a customer, the Company assesses the promised goods or services in the contract and identifies each promised good or service that is distinct. A performance obligation is a distinct good or service (or bundle of goods or services) if both of the following criteria are met: The customer can benefit from the good or service either on its own or together with other resources that are readily available to the customer (i.e., the good or service is capable of being distinct), and the Company’s promise to transfer the good or service to the customer is separately identifiable from other promises in the contract (i.e., the promise to transfer the good or service is distinct within the context of the contract).
If a good or service is not distinct, the good or service is combined with other promised goods or services until a bundle of goods or services is identified that is distinct.
The transaction price is the amount of consideration to which the Company expects to be entitled in exchange for transferring promised goods or services to a customer. The consideration promised in a contract with a customer may include fixed amounts, variable amounts, or both. When determining the transaction price, an entity must consider the effects of all of the following:
Variable consideration is included in the transaction price only to the extent that it is probable that a significant reversal in the amount of cumulative revenue recognized will not occur when the uncertainty associated with the variable consideration is subsequently resolved. The transaction price is allocated to each performance obligation on a relative standalone selling price basis. The transaction
price allocated to each performance obligation is recognized when that performance obligation is satisfied, at a point in time or over time as appropriate.
The Company has entered into digital asset mining pools by executing contracts with mining pool operators to provide computing power to the mining pool. The Company’s enforceable right to compensation begins only when, and lasts as long as, the Company provides computing power to the mining pool operator and is created as power is provided over time. The only consideration due to the Company relates to the provision of computing power. The contracts are terminable at any time by and at no cost to the Company, and by the pool operator under certain conditions specified in the contract. Providing computing power in digital asset transaction verification services is an output of the Company’s ordinary activities. Providing such computing power is the only performance obligation in the Company’s contracts with mining pool operators.
The transaction consideration the Company receives, if any, is noncash consideration in the form of Bitcoin. Changes in the fair value of the noncash consideration due to form of the consideration (changes in the market price of Bitcoin) are not included in the transaction price and therefore, are not included in revenue. Certain mining pool operators charge fees to cover the costs of maintaining the pool and are deducted from amounts we may otherwise earn and are treated as a reduction to the consideration received. Fees fluctuate and historically have been no more than approximately 2% per reward earned, on average. The terms of the agreements provide that neither party can dispute settlement terms after approximately thirty-five days following settlement. In exchange for providing computing power, the Company is entitled to either:
There is no significant financing component in these transactions.
Data Center Hosting
In general, we provide power for our data center customers on a variable (sub-metered) basis. A customer pays us variable monthly fees for the specific amount of power utilized at rates specified in each contract, subject to certain minimums. We recognize variable power revenue each month as the uncertainty related to the consideration is resolved, power is provided to our customers, and our customers utilize the power (the customer simultaneously receives and consumes the benefits of the Company’s performance).
We have determined that our contracts contain a series of performance obligations which qualify to be recognized under a practical expedient available known as the “right to invoice.” This determination allows variable consideration in such contracts to be allocated to and recognized in the period to which the consideration relates, which is typically the period in which it is billed, rather than requiring estimation of variable consideration at the inception of the contract. We have also determined that the contracts contain a significant financing component because the timing of revenue recognition differs from the timing of invoicing by a period, exceeding one year.
The Company also installs certain hosted customers’ mining equipment and bills the customer at a fixed fee per piece of equipment or at an hourly rate. Revenue is recognized upon completion of the installation.
We generate engineering and construction services revenue from the fabrication and deployment of immersion cooling technology for Bitcoin mining customers, for which we bill the customer at a fixed monthly fee or at an hourly rate. For the construction of customer-owned equipment, revenue is recognized upon completion of each phase of the construction project, as defined in each contract. For the construction of assets owned by us but paid for and used by the customer during the term of their data center hosting contract, revenue is recognized on a straight-line basis over the remaining life of the contract.
Maintenance services include cleaning, cabling, and other services to maintain customer equipment. We bill the customer at a fixed monthly fee or at an hourly rate. Revenue is recognized as these services are provided.
Deferred revenue is primarily from advance payments received and is recognized on a straight-line basis over the remaining life of the contract or upon completion of the installation of the customers’ equipment.
Our primary data center hosting contracts contain Service Level Agreement clauses, which guarantee a certain percentage of time that power will be available to our customers. In the rare case that we may incur penalties under these clauses, we recognize the payment as variable consideration and a reduction of the transaction price and, therefore, of revenue, when not in exchange for a good or service from the customer.
Substantially all revenue is derived from the sale of custom products built to customers’ specifications under fixed-price contracts with one identified performance obligation. Revenues are recognized over time as performance creates or enhances an asset with no alternative use, and for which the Company has an enforceable right to receive compensation as defined under the contract.
To determine the amount of revenue to recognize over time, the Company utilizes the cost-to-cost method as management believes cost incurred best represents the amount of work completed and remaining on projects. As the cost-to-cost method is driven by incurred cost, the Company calculates the percentage of completion by dividing costs incurred to date by the total estimated cost. The percentage of completion is then multiplied by estimated revenues to determine inception-to-date revenue. Approved changes to design plans are generally recognized as a cumulative adjustment to the percentage of completion calculation. Revenue recognized for the period is the current inception-to-date recognized revenue less the prior period inception-to-date recognized revenue. If a
contract is projected to result in a loss, the entire contract loss is recognized in the period when the loss was first determined, and any additional losses incurred subsequently are recognized in the subsequent reporting periods as they are identified. Additionally, contract costs incurred to date and expected total contract costs are continuously monitored during the term of the contract.
Changes in the job performance, job conditions and final contract settlements are factors that influence management’s assessment of total contract value and the total estimated costs to complete those contracts, and therefore, profit and revenue recognition. Any costs to obtain a contract are not material to the Company’s financial statements and would be expensed as incurred. Because of the inherent uncertainties in estimating costs, it is at least reasonably possible that the estimates used will change within the near term. The length of time for the Company to complete a custom product varies but is typically between four to 12 weeks.
Customers are typically required to make periodic progress payments to the Company based on contractually agreed-upon milestones. Invoices are due net, 30 days, and retainage, if any, is generally due 30 days after delivery. Taxes collected from customers and remitted to governmental authorities are excluded from revenue. Shipping and handling costs are treated as fulfillment costs and are included in cost of sales.
Other revenue is recognized from an upfront license fee generated from our legacy animal health business. The upfront fee was recorded as deferred revenue and is being amortized into revenue over the term of the agreement.
Fair value measurement
Fair value is defined as an exit price, representing the amount that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. As such, fair value is a market-based measurement that is determined based on assumptions that market participants would use in pricing an asset or a liability.
Fair value measurements are classified and disclosed in one of the following three categories:
Level 1: Quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.
Level 2: Observable inputs other than Level 1 prices, for similar assets or liabilities that are directly or indirectly observable in the marketplace.
Level 3: Unobservable inputs which are supported by little or no market activity and that are financial instruments whose values are determined using pricing models, discounted cash flow methodologies, or similar techniques, as well as instruments for which the determination of fair value requires significant judgment or estimation.
The fair value hierarchy also requires an entity to maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs when measuring fair value. Assets and liabilities measured at fair value are classified in their entirety based on the lowest level of input that is significant to the fair value measurement.
The Company will update its assumptions each reporting period based on new developments and record such amounts at fair value based on the revised assumptions until the agreements expire or contingency is resolved, as applicable.
Property and equipment
Property and equipment is stated at cost and depreciated using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets. Estimated useful lives for leasehold improvements are typically the lesser of the estimated useful life of the asset or the life of the term of the lease. The estimated useful lives for all the Company’s property and equipment are as follows:
Impairment of long-lived assets
Management reviews long-lived assets for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. Recoverability of assets to be held and used is measured by a comparison of the carrying amount of an asset to undiscounted future cash flows expected to be generated by the asset. If such assets are considered to be impaired, the impairment to be recognized is measured by the amount by which the carrying amount of the assets exceeds the fair value of the assets.
Goodwill represents the cost of a business acquisition in excess of the fair value of the net assets acquired. Goodwill is not amortized and is reviewed for impairment annually as of December 31, or more frequently if facts and circumstances indicate that it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount, including goodwill. We use both qualitative and quantitative analyses in making this determination. The Company determined that it has three reporting units for goodwill impairment testing purposes, Bitcoin Mining, Data Center Hosting, and Engineering, which is consistent with internal management reporting and management’s oversight of operations. Our analyses require significant assumptions and judgments, including assumptions about future economic conditions, revenue growth, and operating margins, among other factors. Example events or changes in circumstances considered in the qualitative analysis, many of which are subjective in nature, include: a significant negative trend in our industry or overall economic trends, a significant change in how we use the acquired assets, a significant change in our business strategy, a significant decrease in the market value of the asset, a significant change in regulations or in the industry that could affect the value of the asset, and a change in segments. If it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount, the Company performs the quantitative test to identify and measure the amount of goodwill impairment loss. The Company compares the fair value of the reporting unit with its carrying amount. If the carrying amount exceeds the fair value, goodwill of the reporting unit is considered impaired and that excess is recognized as a goodwill impairment loss.
Finite-lived intangible assets
Intangible assets with finite lives are comprised of customer contracts, trademarks, UL Listings and patents that are amortized on a straight-line basis over their expected useful lives, which is their contractual term or estimated useful life. Patents costs consisting of filing and legal fees incurred are initially recorded at cost. Certain patents are in the legal application process and therefore are not currently being amortized. The Company performs assessments to determine whether finite-lived classification is still appropriate at least annually. The carrying value of finite-lived assets and their remaining useful lives are also reviewed at least annually to determine if circumstances exist which may indicate a potential impairment or revision to the amortization period. A finite-lived intangible asset is considered to be impaired if its carrying value exceeds the estimated future undiscounted cash flows to be derived from it. We exercise judgment in selecting the assumptions used in the estimated future undiscounted cash flows analysis. Impairment is measured by the amount that the carrying value exceeds fair value.
The use of different estimates or assumptions could result in significantly different fair values for our reporting units and intangible assets.
The Company uses the acquisition method of accounting by recognizing the identifiable tangible and intangible assets acquired and liabilities assumed, and any non-controlling interest in the acquired business, measured at their acquisition date fair values. Goodwill as of the acquisition date is measured as the excess of consideration transferred over the aforementioned amounts. Contingent consideration is included within the purchase price and is recognized at its fair value on the acquisition date. A liability resulting from contingent consideration is remeasured to fair value as of each reporting date until the contingency is resolved, and subsequent changes in fair value are recognized in earnings. Contingent consideration is recorded in long-term liabilities in our consolidated balance sheets.
While we use our best estimates and assumptions to accurately apply preliminary values to assets acquired and liabilities assumed at the acquisition date as well as contingent consideration, where applicable, these estimates are inherently uncertain and subject to refinement. As a result, during the measurement period, which may be up to one year from the acquisition date, we record adjustments to the assets acquired and liabilities assumed with the corresponding offset to goodwill. Upon the conclusion of the measurement period or final determination of the values of the assets acquired or liabilities assumed, whichever comes first, any subsequent adjustments are recorded in the consolidated statements of operations.
Accounting for business combinations requires management to make significant estimates and assumptions, especially at the acquisition date, including estimates for intangible assets, contractual obligations assumed, pre-acquisition contingencies, and contingent consideration, where applicable. Although we believe the assumptions and estimates we have made have been reasonable and appropriate, they are based in part on historical experience and information obtained from management of the acquired companies and are inherently uncertain. Critical estimates in valuing certain of the intangible assets we have acquired include; future expected cash flows from customer contracts, discount rates, and estimated market changes in the value of the Power Supply Agreement, which is accounted for as a nonhedged derivative contract. Unanticipated events and circumstances may occur that may affect the accuracy or validity of such assumptions, estimates, or actual results.
Acquisition-related expenses are recognized separately from the business combination and are expensed as incurred.
Investment in marketable equity securities
The Company measures its investments in marketable equity securities at fair value at each balance sheet date, with unrealized holding gains and losses recorded in other income (expense), as the shares have a readily determinable fair value since they are publicly traded and have significant average daily volume traded.
The Company determines whether an arrangement contains a lease at the inception of the arrangement. If a lease is determined to exist, the term of such lease is assessed based on the date on which the underlying asset is made available for the Company’s use by the lessor. The Company’s assessment of the lease term reflects the non-cancelable term of the lease, inclusive of any rent-free periods and/or periods covered by early-termination options which the Company is reasonably certain of not exercising, as well as periods covered by renewal options which the Company is reasonably certain of exercising. The Company also determines lease classification as either operating or finance at lease commencement, which governs the pattern of expense recognition and the presentation reflected in the consolidated statements of operations over the lease term.
For leases with a term exceeding 12 months, an operating lease liability is recorded on the Company’s consolidated balance sheet at lease commencement reflecting the present value of its fixed minimum payment obligations over the lease term. A corresponding operating lease right-of-use asset equal to the initial lease liability is also recorded, adjusted for any prepaid rent and/or initial direct costs incurred in connection with execution of the lease and reduced by any lease incentives received. For purposes of measuring the present value of its fixed payment obligations for a given lease, the Company uses its incremental borrowing rate, determined based on information available at lease commencement, as rates implicit in its leasing arrangements are typically not readily determinable. The Company’s incremental borrowing rate reflects the rate it would pay to borrow on a secured basis and incorporates the term and economic environment of the associated lease.
For the Company’s operating leases, fixed lease payments are recognized as lease expense on a straight-line basis over the lease term. For leases with a term of 12 months or less, any fixed lease payments are recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term and are not recognized on the Company’s consolidated balance sheet as an accounting policy election. Leases qualifying for the short-term lease exception were insignificant. Variable lease costs are recognized as incurred and primarily consist of common area maintenance and utility charges not included in the measurement of right of use assets and operating lease liabilities.
Operating segments are defined as components of an entity for which discrete financial information is available that is regularly reviewed by the CODM in deciding how to allocate resources to an individual segment and in assessing performance. The Company’s CODM is comprised of several members of its executive management team who use revenue and cost of revenues of our three reporting segments to assess the performance of the business of our reportable operating segments.
The Company accounts for income taxes under the asset and liability method, in which deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax consequences attributable to differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases and operating loss and tax credit carry forwards. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized in operations
in the period that includes the enactment date. A valuation allowance is required to the extent any deferred tax assets may not be realizable.
Contract assets consist of costs and estimated earnings in excess of billings on uncompleted contracts and unearned revenue consists of billings in excess of costs and estimated earnings on uncompleted contracts.
Contract liabilities primarily relate to upfront payments and consideration received from customers for data center hosting, billings in excess of costs and estimated earnings on uncompleted engineering contracts, and the upfront license fee generated from our legacy animal health business.
Remaining performance obligations
Remaining performance obligations represent the transaction price of contracts for work that has not yet been performed. Amounts related to Bitcoin Mining are not included as the Company elected the practical expedient to not disclose amounts related to contracts with a duration of one year or less.
Additionally, the Company elected the practical expedient to not adjust the transaction price for the existence of a significant financing component if the timing difference between a customer’s payment and our performance is one year or less.
Cost of revenues
The Company accounts for share-based payment awards exchanged for services at the estimated grant date fair value of the award, which is based on the fair market value of the Company’s common stock at the time of the grant. For performance-based share-based payment awards, the Company begins to recognize compensation cost over the performance period when achievement of the milestones and targets is probable.
The Company has elected to account for forfeitures of awards as they occur.
Recently issued accounting pronouncements
The Company continually assesses any new accounting pronouncements to determine their applicability. When it is determined that a new accounting pronouncement affects the Company’s financial reporting, the Company undertakes a study to determine the consequences of the change to its consolidated financial statements and assures that there are proper controls in place to ascertain that the Company’s consolidated financial statements properly reflect the change.
In June 2016, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2016-13, Financial Instruments-Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments, which was codified with its subsequent amendments as Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 326, Financial Instruments – Credit Losses (“ASC 326”). ASC 326 seeks to provide financial statement users with more decision-useful information about the expected credit losses on financial instruments, including trade receivables, and other commitments to extend credit held by a reporting entity at each reporting date. The amendments require an entity to replace the incurred loss impairment methodology in other GAAP with a methodology that reflects current expected credit losses and requires consideration of a broader range of reasonable and supportable information to inform credit loss estimates. The updated guidance is effective for the Company for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2022, and early adoption is permitted. In connection with the Company’s acquisitions during the year ended December 31, 2021, the Company adopted this standard on January 1, 2021 and the adoption did not have a material impact on the financial statements and related disclosures.
In December 2019, the FASB issued ASU 2019-12, “Income Taxes (Topic 740): Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes (“ASU 2019-12”), which is intended to simplify various aspects related to accounting for income taxes. ASU 2019-12 removes certain exceptions to the general principles in ASC Topic 740 and also clarifies and amends existing guidance to improve consistent application. This guidance is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2020, with early adoption permitted. The Company adopted this standard on January 1, 2020 and the adoption did not have a material impact on the financial statements and related disclosures.
In May 2021, the FASB issued ASU 2021-04, Earnings Per Share (Topic 260), Debt-Modifications and Extinguishments (Subtopic 470-50), Compensation-Stock Compensation (Topic 718), and Derivatives and Hedging-Contracts in Entity’s Own Equity (Subtopic 815-40), (“ASU 2021-04”). This ASU reduces diversity in an issuer’s accounting for modifications or exchanges of freestanding equity-classified written call options (for example, warrants) that remain equity classified after modification or exchange. This ASU provides guidance for a modification or an exchange of a freestanding equity-classified written call option that is not within the scope of another Topic. It specifically addresses: (1) how an entity should treat a modification of the terms or conditions or an exchange of a freestanding equity-classified written call option that remains equity classified after modification or exchange; (2) how an entity should measure the effect of a modification or an exchange of a freestanding equity-classified written call option that remains equity classified after modification or exchange; and (3) how an entity should recognize the effect of a modification or an exchange of a freestanding equity-classified written call option that remains equity classified after modification or exchange. This ASU will be effective for all entities for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2021. An entity should apply the amendments prospectively to modifications or exchanges occurring on or after the effective date of the amendments. Early adoption is permitted, including adoption in an interim period. The adoption of ASU 2021-04 on January 1, 2022 did not have a material impact on the Company’s financial statements.
No definition available.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/disclosureRef