Basis of Presentation, Summary of Significant Accounting Policies and Recent Accounting Pronouncements
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2021
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Basis of Presentation, Summary of Significant Accounting Policies and Recent Accounting Pronouncements||
Note 3. Basis of Presentation, Summary of Significant Accounting Policies and Recent Accounting Pronouncements
Basis of presentation and principles of consolidation
The accompanying consolidated financial statements of the Company include the accounts of the Company and its wholly or majority owned and controlled subsidiaries. Consolidated subsidiaries results are included from the date the subsidiary was formed or acquired. Intercompany investments, balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation. Non–controlling interests represents the minority equity investment in the Company’s subsidiaries, plus the minority investors’ share of the net operating results and other components of equity relating to the non–controlling interest.
The accompanying audited consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and its wholly owned subsidiaries. They include the results of operations and financial condition of Whinstone beginning on May 26, 2021 and ESS Metron on December 1, 2021. See Note 4, “Acquisitions”, for additional information on our acquisitions of Whinstone and ESS Metron. All intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation. Amounts are in thousands except for share, per share and miner amounts.
Revision of previously issued consolidated financial statements
As noted in Note 4. “Acquisitions”, on May 26, 2021, the Company acquired 100% of the equity interests of Whinstone. The Whinstone Acquisition was accounted for using the acquisition method of accounting in accordance with ASC 805, Business Combinations, which requires recognition of assets acquired and liabilities assumed at their respective fair values on the date of acquisition. During the third quarter of 2022, the Company discovered a classification error in its reported allocation of acquisition date fair value to property and equipment, which resulted in an understatement of property and equipment and an equal overstatement of goodwill as of the balance sheet dates outlined below.
In accordance with Staff Accounting Bulletin (“SAB”) 99, Materiality, and SAB 108, Considering the Effects of Prior Year Misstatements when Quantifying Misstatements in Current Year Financial Statements, the Company evaluated the materiality of the error from qualitative and quantitative perspectives, and concluded that the error was immaterial to any prior annual or interim financial statements. Notwithstanding this conclusion, management revised the accompanying Consolidated Balance Sheet as of December 31, 2021 and related notes included herein to correct this error.
The following table presents the effect of correcting this error on the Company’s Consolidated Balance Sheet as of December 31, 2021. There were no changes to other consolidated financial statements as a result of correcting this error.
The remainder of the notes to the consolidated financial statements have been updated, as applicable, to reflect the impacts of the revision described above.
Use of estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“GAAP”) requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the balance sheet and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reporting periods. Actual results could differ significantly from those estimates. The most significant accounting estimates inherent in the preparation of the Company’s financial statements include estimates associated with valuing contingent consideration for a business combination and periodic reassessment of its fair value, allocating the fair value of purchase consideration to assets acquired and liabilities assumed in business acquisitions, revenue recognition, valuing the derivative asset classified under Level 3 fair value hierarchy, determining the useful lives and recoverability of long-lived assets, impairment analysis of goodwill and finite-lived intangibles, stock-based compensation, and the valuation allowance associated with the Company’s deferred tax assets.
Certain prior period amounts have been reclassified to conform to the current period presentation. The reclassifications did not have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements and related disclosures. The impact on any prior period disclosures was immaterial.
Cash and cash equivalents
The Company considers all highly liquid investments with an original maturity of three months or less at the date of acquisition to be cash equivalents. From time to time, the Company’s cash account balances exceed the balances as covered by the Federal Deposit Insurance System. The Company has never suffered a loss due to such excess balances. As of December 31, 2021 and 2020, the Company had no cash equivalents.
Accounts Receivable, net
The Company’s accounts receivable balance consists of amounts due from its hosting and engineering customers. The Company records accounts receivable at the invoiced amount less an allowance for any potentially uncollectable accounts under the current expected credit loss (“CECL”) impairment model under ASU 2016-13, Financial Instruments – Credit Losses (Topic 326), Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Assets, and presents the net amount of the financial instrument expected to be collected. The CECL impairment model requires an estimate of expected credit losses, measured over the contractual life of an instrument, that considers forecasts of future economic conditions in addition to information about past events and current conditions. Based on this model, the Company considers many factors, including the age of the balance, collection history, and current economic trends. Bad debts are written off after all collection efforts have ceased.
Allowance for credit losses are recorded as a direct reduction from an asset’s amortized cost basis. Credit losses and recoveries are recorded in selling, general and administrative expenses in the consolidated statements of operations. Recoveries of financial assets previously written off are recorded when received. For the years ended December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019, the Company did not record any credit losses or recoveries.
Based on the Company’s current and historical collection experience, management recorded an allowance for doubtful accounts of less than $0.1 million as of December 31, 2021. There were no accounts receivable as of December 31, 2020.
No individual customer accounted for more than 7.5% of revenue for the year ended December 31, 2021. As of December 31, 2021, seven customers accounted for more than 83% of accounts receivable.
Effective January 1, 2018, the Company adopted Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2016-01 and related ASU 2018-03 concerning recognition and measurement of financial assets and financial liabilities. In adopting this new guidance, the Company has made an accounting policy election to adopt an adjusted cost method measurement alternative for investments in equity securities without readily determinable fair values.
For equity investments that are accounted for using the measurement alternative, the Company initially records equity investments at cost but is required to adjust the carrying value of such equity investments through earnings when there is an observable transaction involving the same or a similar investment with the same issuer or upon an impairment.
The Company recognizes revenue under ASC 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers. The core principle of the revenue standard is that a company should recognize revenue to depict the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the company expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. The following five steps are applied to achieve that core principle:
Step 1: Identify the contract with the customer
Step 2: Identify the performance obligations in the contract
Step 3: Determine the transaction price
Step 4: Allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract
Step 5: Recognize revenue when the Company satisfies a performance obligation
In order to identify the performance obligations in a contract with a customer, a company must assess the promised goods or services in the contract and identify each promised good or service that is distinct. A performance obligation meets ASC 606’s definition of a “distinct” good or service (or bundle of goods or services) if both of the following criteria are met: The customer can benefit from the good or service either on its own or together with other resources that are readily available to the customer (i.e., the good or service is capable of being distinct), and the entity’s promise to transfer the good or service to the customer is separately identifiable from other promises in the contract (i.e., the promise to transfer the good or service is distinct within the context of the contract).
If a good or service is not distinct, the good or service is combined with other promised goods or services until a bundle of goods or services is identified that is distinct.
The transaction price is the amount of consideration to which an entity expects to be entitled in exchange for transferring promised goods or services to a customer. The consideration promised in a contract with a customer may include fixed amounts, variable amounts, or both. When determining the transaction price, an entity must consider the effects of all of the following:
Constraining estimates of variable consideration
The existence of a significant financing component in the contract
Consideration payable to a customer
Variable consideration is included in the transaction price only to the extent that it is probable that a significant reversal in the amount of cumulative revenue recognized will not occur when the uncertainty associated with the variable consideration is subsequently resolved. The transaction price is allocated to each performance obligation on a relative standalone selling price basis. The transaction price allocated to each performance obligation is recognized when that performance obligation is satisfied, at a point in time or over time as appropriate.
The Company has entered into digital asset mining pools by executing contracts, as amended from time to time, currently with one mining pool operator, with the mining pool operators to provide computing power to the mining pool. The contracts are terminable at any time by either party and the Company’s enforceable right to compensation only begins when the Company provides computing power to the mining pool operator. In exchange for providing computing power, the Company is entitled to a fractional share of the fixed cryptocurrency award the mining pool operator receives (less digital asset transaction fees to the mining pool operator which are immaterial and are recorded as a deduction from revenue), for successfully adding a block to the blockchain. The terms of the agreement provide that neither party can dispute settlement terms after thirty-five days following settlement. The Company’s fractional share is based on the proportion of computing power the Company contributed to the mining pool operator to the total computing power contributed by all mining pool participants in solving the current algorithm.
Providing computing power in digital asset transaction verification services is an output of the Company’s ordinary activities. The provision of providing such computing power is the only performance obligation in the Company’s contracts with mining pool operators. The transaction consideration the Company receives, if any, is noncash consideration, which the Company measures at fair value on the date received, which is not materially different than the fair value at contract inception or the time the Company has earned the award from the pools. The consideration is all variable. Because it is not probable that a significant reversal of cumulative revenue will not occur, the consideration is constrained until the mining pool operator successfully places a block (by being the first to solve an algorithm) and the Company receives confirmation of the consideration it will receive, at which time revenue is recognized. There is no significant financing component in these transactions.
Fair value of the cryptocurrency award received is determined using the quoted price of the related cryptocurrency at the time of receipt.
In general, we provide power for our data center customers on a variable (sub-metered) basis. A customer pays us variable monthly fees for the specific amount of power utilized at rates specified in each contract, subject to certain minimums. We recognize variable power revenue each month as the uncertainty related to the consideration is resolved, power is provided to our customers, and our customers utilize the power (the customer simultaneously receives and consumes the benefits of the Company’s performance).
We have determined that our contracts contain a series of performance obligations which qualify to be recognized under a practical expedient available known as the “right to invoice.” This determination allows variable consideration in such contracts to be allocated to and recognized in the period to which the consideration relates, which is typically the period in which it is billed, rather than requiring estimation of variable consideration at the inception of the contract. We have also determined that the contracts contain a significant financing component because the timing of revenue recognition differs from the timing of invoicing by a period, exceeding one year.
The Company also installs certain hosted customers’ mining equipment and bills the customer at a fixed fee per piece of equipment or at an hourly rate. Revenue is recognized upon completion of the installation.
We generate engineering and construction services revenue from the fabrication and deployment of immersion cooling technology for Bitcoin mining customers. We bill the customer at a fixed monthly fee or at an hourly rate. For the construction of customer-owned equipment, revenue is recognized upon completion of each phase of the construction project, as defined in each contract. For construction of assets owned by Whinstone but paid for and used by the customer during the term of their hosting contract, revenue is recognized on a straight-line basis over the remaining life of the contract.
Maintenance services include cleaning, cabling and other services to maintain the customers’ equipment. We bill the customer at a fixed monthly fee or at an hourly rate. Revenue is recognized as these services are provided.
Deferred revenue is primarily from advance payments received and is recognized on a straight-line basis over the remaining life of the contract or upon completion of the installation of the customers’ equipment.
Our primary hosting contracts contain Service Level Agreement clauses, which guarantee a certain percentage of time the power will be available to our customer. In the rare case that we may incur penalties under these clauses, we account for payments made to customers in accordance with ASC 606-10-32-25, Consideration Payable to a Customer, which requires the payment be recognized as variable consideration and a reduction of the transaction price and, therefore, of revenue, when not in exchange for a good or service from the customer.
Substantially all revenue is derived from the sale of custom products built to customers’ specifications under fixed-price contracts with one identified performance obligation. Revenues are recognized over time as performance creates or enhances an asset with no alternative use, and for which the Company has an enforceable right to receive compensation as defined under the contract.
To determine the amount of revenue to recognize over time, the Company utilizes the cost-to-cost method as management believes cost incurred best represents the amount of work completed and remaining on projects. As the cost-to-cost method is driven by incurred cost, the Company calculates the percentage of completion by dividing costs incurred to date by the total estimated cost. The percentage of completion is then multiplied by estimated revenues to determine inception-to-date revenue. Approved changes to design plans are generally recognized as a cumulative adjustment to the percentage of completion calculation. Revenue recognized for the period is the current inception-to-date recognized revenue less the prior period inception-to-date recognized revenue. If a contract is projected to result in a loss, the entire contract loss is recognized in the period when the loss was first determined, and any additional losses incurred subsequently are recognized in the subsequent reporting periods as they are identified. Additionally, contract costs incurred to date and expected total contract costs are continuously monitored during the term of the contract.
Changes in the job performance, job conditions and final contract settlements are factors that influence management’s assessment of total contract value and the total estimated costs to complete those contracts, and therefore, profit and revenue recognition. Any costs to obtain a contract are not material to the Company’s financial statements and would be expensed as incurred. Because of the inherent uncertainties in estimating costs, it is at least reasonably possible that the estimates used will change within the near term. The length of time for the Company to complete a custom product varies but is typically between four to 12 weeks.
Customers are typically required to make periodic progress payments to the Company based on contractually agreed-upon milestones. Invoices are due net, 30 days, and retainage, if any, is generally due 30 days after delivery. Taxes collected from customers and remitted to governmental authorities are excluded from revenue. Shipping and handling costs are treated as fulfillment costs and are included in cost of sales.
Other revenue is revenue recognized from an upfront license fee generated from our legacy animal health business. The upfront fee was recorded as deferred revenue and is being amortized into revenue over the term of the License Agreement.
Power Supply Contract and Demand Response Services
In May 2020, Whinstone entered into a Power Supply Agreement with TXU Energy Retail Company LLC (“TXU”) to provide the delivery of a fixed amount of electricity by TXU to Whinstone (via the facility owned by Oncor Electric Delivery Company, LLC (“Oncor”)) for a fixed price through April 30, 2030. The Power Supply Agreement provides a consistent and sufficient supply of electricity at the Whinstone Facility. If Whinstone uses more electricity than contracted, the cost of the excess is incurred at the current spot rate. Concurrently, Whinstone entered into a contract with Oncor for the extension of delivery system transmission/substation facilities to facilitate delivery of the electricity to the Whinstone Facility (the “Facilities Agreement”). Power costs incurred under this contract are determined on an hourly basis using settlement information provided by the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (“ERCOT”) and are recorded in cost of revenues - data center hosting in the consolidated statements of operations.
The demand response services program (“Demand Response Service”) provides the ERCOT market with valuable reliability and economic services by helping to preserve system reliability, enhancing competition, mitigating price spikes, and encouraging the demand side of the market to respond better to wholesale price signals. In collaboration with market participants such as the Company, ERCOT has developed demand response products and services for customers that have the ability to reduce or modify electricity use in response to instructions or signals. Market participants with electrical loads like Whinstone may participate in the Demand Response Service program directly by offering their electrical loads into the ERCOT markets, or indirectly by voluntarily reducing their energy usage in response to increasing wholesale prices.
Depending on the spot market price of electricity, under this program, we opportunistically sell electricity back to ERCOT in exchange for cash payments, rather than providing the power to our customers during these peak times in order to most efficiently manage our operating costs. We sold approximately $6.5 million in electricity back to ERCOT during the period from May 26, 2021 (the “Acquisition Date”) through December 31, 2021. These sales back to ERCOT are recorded as part of the change in fair value of derivative asset in the consolidated statements of operations.
While we manage operating costs at the Whinstone Facility in part by periodically selling unused or uneconomical power in the market back to ERCOT, we do not consider such actions trading activities. That is, we do not engage in speculation in the power market as part of our ordinary activities. Because the Demand Response Services programs allow for net settlement, we have determined the Power Supply Agreement meets the definition of a derivative under ASC 815, Derivatives and Hedging, (“ASC 815”). However, because we have the ability to sell the power back to the grid rather than take physical delivery, physical delivery is not probable through the entirety of the contract and therefore, we do not believe the normal purchases and normal sales scope exception applies to the Power Supply Agreement. Accordingly, the Power Supply Agreement (the non-hedging derivative contract) is recorded at estimated fair value each reporting period with the change in the fair value recorded in change in fair value of derivative asset in the consolidated statements of operations.
In February 2021, the State of Texas experienced an extreme and unprecedented winter weather event that resulted in prolonged freezing temperatures and caused an electricity generation shortage that was severely disruptive to the whole state. While demand for electricity reached extraordinary levels due to the extreme cold, the supply of electricity significantly decreased in part because of the inability of certain power generation facilities to supply electric power to the grid. Due to the extreme market price of electricity during this time, at the request of ERCOT, Whinstone stopped supplying power to its customers and instead sold power back to the grid.
In April 2021, under the provisions of the TXU Power Supply Agreement, and as a result of the weather event, Whinstone entered into a Qualified Scheduling Entity (“QSE”) Letter Agreement, which resulted in Whinstone being entitled to receive approximately $125.1 million for its power sales during the February winter storm, all under the terms and conditions of the QSE Letter Agreement. Whinstone received cash of $29.0 million in April 2021 (after deducting $10.0 million in power management fees owed by Whinstone), approximately $59.7 million is scheduled to be credited against future power bills of Whinstone beginning in 2022 and the remaining $26.3 million is contingent upon ERCOT’s future remittance. These amounts are gross before fair value adjustments and expenses incurred by Whinstone for power management fees noted above and customer settlements. The fair value of the settlement agreement was estimated and recognized as an asset as part of acquisition accounting. Additionally, pursuant to the Northern Data stock purchase agreement, the Company agreed to pay Seller additional consideration in cash in the amount of the future power credits, net of income taxes, when and if realized by Whinstone. See Note 4, “Acquisitions”.
Fair Value Measurement
The Company follows the accounting guidance in ASC 820, Fair Value Measurement, (“ASC 820”) for its fair value measurements of financial assets and liabilities measured at fair value on a recurring basis. Under this accounting guidance, fair value is defined as an exit price, representing the amount that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. As such, fair value is a market-based measurement that should be determined based on assumptions that market participants would use in pricing an asset or a liability.
The accounting guidance requires fair value measurements be classified and disclosed in one of the following three categories:
Level 1: Quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.
Level 2: Observable inputs other than Level 1 prices, for similar assets or liabilities that are directly or indirectly observable in the marketplace.
Level 3: Unobservable inputs which are supported by little or no market activity and that are financial instruments whose values are determined using pricing models, discounted cash flow methodologies, or similar techniques, as well as instruments for which the determination of fair value requires significant judgment or estimation.
The fair value hierarchy also requires an entity to maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs when measuring fair value. Assets and liabilities measured at fair value are classified in their entirety based on the lowest level of input that is significant to the fair value measurement.
The Company’s derivative asset related to its Power Supply Agreement is classified within Level 3 of the fair value hierarchy because the fair value is estimated by utilizing valuation models and significant unobservable inputs. The Company’s only financial liability based on Level 3 inputs is a contingent consideration arrangement related to its acquisition of Whinstone. The Company is contractually obligated to pay contingent consideration payments to the Seller if Whinstone realizes certain power credits. (See Note 14, “Fair Value Measurement”)
The Company will update its assumptions each reporting period based on new developments and record such amounts at fair value based on the revised assumptions until the agreements expire or contingency is resolved, as applicable.
As of December 31, 2020, there were no financial assets or liabilities measured at fair value.
Property and Equipment
Property and equipment is stated at cost and depreciated using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets. Estimated useful lives for leasehold improvements are typically the lesser of the estimated useful life of the asset or the life of the term of the lease. The estimated useful lives for all other property and equipment are as follows:
Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets
The Company accounts for intangible assets under ASC 350-30, Intangibles – Goodwill and Other. Goodwill represents the cost of a business acquisition in excess of the fair value of the net assets acquired. The Company determined that it has three reporting units for goodwill impairment testing purposes, Mining, Hosting, and Engineering, which is consistent with internal management reporting and management’s oversight of operations. Goodwill is not amortized and is reviewed for impairment annually as of December 31 or more frequently if facts and circumstances indicate that it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount, including goodwill. We use both qualitative and quantitative analyses in making this determination. Our analyses require significant assumptions and judgments, including assumptions about future economic conditions, revenue growth, and operating margins, among other factors. Example events or changes in circumstances considered in the qualitative analysis, many of which are subjective in nature, include: a significant negative trend in our industry or overall economic trends, a significant change in how we use the acquired assets, a significant change in or our business strategy, a significant decrease in the market value of the asset, a significant change in regulations or in the industry that could affect the value of the asset, and a change in segments. If it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount, the Company performs the quantitative test to identify and measure the amount of goodwill impairment loss. The Company compares the fair value of the reporting unit with its carrying amount. If the carrying amount exceeds the fair value, goodwill of the reporting unit is considered impaired and that excess is recognized as a goodwill impairment loss.
Intangible assets with finite lives are comprised of customer contracts, trademarks, UL Listings and patents that are amortized on a straight-line basis over their expected useful lives, which is their contractual term or estimated useful life. Patents costs consisting of filing and legal fees incurred are initially recorded at cost. Certain patents are in the legal application process and therefore are not currently being amortized. The Company performs assessments to determine whether finite-lived classification is still appropriate at least annually. The carrying value of finite-lived assets and their remaining useful lives are also reviewed at least annually to determine if circumstances exist which may indicate a potential impairment or revision to the amortization period. A finite-lived intangible asset is considered to be impaired if its carrying value exceeds the estimated future undiscounted cash flows to be derived from it. We exercise judgment in selecting the assumptions used in the estimated future undiscounted cash flows analysis. Impairment is measured by the amount that the carrying value exceeds fair value.
The use of different estimates or assumptions could result in significantly different fair values for our reporting units and intangible assets.
As of December 31, 2021, the carrying amounts and estimated lives of the Company’s intangible assets with finite lives were as follows:
As of December 31, 2020, the carrying amounts of the Company’s intangible assets with finite lives were as follows:
The following table represents the total estimated amortization of intangible assets for the five succeeding years:
We did not identify any impairment of our Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets during the years ended December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019 other than our cryptocurrencies discussed below.
Cryptocurrencies, (including Bitcoin and Bitcoin cash) are included in current assets in the accompanying consolidated balance sheets. Cryptocurrencies purchased are recorded at cost and cryptocurrencies awarded to the Company through its mining activities are accounted for in connection with the Company’s revenue recognition policy disclosed above.
Cryptocurrencies held are accounted for as intangible assets with indefinite useful lives. An intangible asset with an indefinite useful life is not amortized but assessed for impairment annually, or more frequently, when events or changes in circumstances occur indicating that it is more likely than not that the indefinite-lived asset is impaired. Impairment exists when the carrying amount exceeds its fair value, which is measured using the quoted price of the cryptocurrency at the time its fair value is being measured. In testing for impairment, the Company has the option to first perform a qualitative assessment to determine whether it is more likely than not that an impairment exists. If it is determined that it is not more likely than not that an impairment exists, a quantitative impairment test is not necessary. If the Company concludes otherwise, it is required to perform a quantitative impairment test. To the extent an impairment loss is recognized, the loss establishes the new cost basis of the asset. Subsequent reversal of impairment losses is not permitted. During 2021, 2020 and 2019, the Company recorded impairment charges on its cryptocurrency holdings of $36.5 million, $1.0 million and $0.8 million, respectively.
Purchases of cryptocurrencies by the Company are included within investing activities in the accompanying consolidated statements of cash flows, while cryptocurrencies awarded to the Company through its mining activities are included within operating activities in the accompanying consolidated statements of cash flows. The sales of cryptocurrencies are included within investing activities in the accompanying consolidated statements of cash flows and any realized gains or losses from such sales are included in other income (expense) in the consolidated statements of operations. The Company accounts for its gains or losses in accordance with the first in first out (FIFO) method of accounting.
Impairment of long-lived assets
Management reviews long-lived assets for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. Recoverability of assets to be held and used is measured by a comparison of the carrying amount of an asset to undiscounted future cash flows expected to be generated by the asset. If such assets are considered to be impaired, the impairment to be recognized is measured by the amount by which the carrying amount of the assets exceeds the fair value of the assets.
During the year ended December 31, 2020, the Company determined there were indicators that would cause a 100% impairment of its Coinsquare investment and observed price changes. Therefore, the Company recorded an impairment expense of $9.4 million for its investment in Coinsquare during the year ended December 31, 2020.
The Company applies the provisions of ASC Topic 805, Business Combinations, (“ASC 805”) in the accounting for acquisitions of businesses. ASC 805 requires us to use the acquisition method of accounting by recognizing the identifiable tangible and intangible assets acquired and liabilities assumed, and any non-controlling interest in the acquired business, measured at their acquisition date fair values. Goodwill as of the acquisition date is measured as the excess of consideration transferred over the aforementioned amounts. Contingent consideration is included within the purchase price and is recognized at its fair value on the acquisition date. A liability resulting from contingent consideration is remeasured to fair value as of each reporting date until the contingency is resolved, and subsequent changes in fair value are recognized in earnings. Contingent consideration is recorded in long-term liabilities in our consolidated balance sheets.
While we use our best estimates and assumptions to accurately apply preliminary values to assets acquired and liabilities assumed at the acquisition date as well as contingent consideration, where applicable, these estimates are inherently uncertain and subject to refinement. As a result, during the measurement period, which may be up to one year from the acquisition date, we record adjustments to the assets acquired and liabilities assumed with the corresponding offset to goodwill. Upon the conclusion of the measurement period or final determination of the values of the assets acquired or liabilities assumed, whichever comes first, any subsequent adjustments are recorded in the consolidated statements of operations.
Accounting for business combinations requires management to make significant estimates and assumptions, especially at the acquisition date, including estimates for intangible assets, contractual obligations assumed, pre-acquisition contingencies, and contingent consideration, where applicable. Although we believe the assumptions and estimates we have made have been reasonable and appropriate, they are based in part on historical experience and information obtained from management of the acquired companies and are inherently uncertain. Critical estimates in valuing certain of the intangible assets we have acquired include; future expected cash flows from customer contracts, discount rates, and estimated market changes in the value of the Power Supply Agreement, which is accounted for as a nonhedged derivative contract. Unanticipated events and circumstances may occur that may affect the accuracy or validity of such assumptions, estimates, or actual results.
Acquisition-related expenses are recognized separately from the business combination and are expensed as incurred.
Investment in marketable equity securities
Our investment in marketable equity securities consists entirely of common shares of Mogo, Inc. (NASDAQ: MOGO), resulting from the April and May 2021 transactions. (See Note 7, “Investments in Marketable Equity Securities”). The Company accounted for this investment in accordance with ASC 321, Investments-Equity Securities, (“ASC 321”) due to the shares having a readily determinable fair value since they are traded on NASDAQ and have significant average daily volume traded. As a result, the investment is required to be measured at fair value at each balance sheet date with unrealized holding gains and losses recorded in other income (expense).
The Company accounts for its leases under ASC 842, Leases (“ASC 842”). Accordingly, the Company determines whether an arrangement contains a lease at the inception of the arrangement. If a lease is determined to exist, the term of such lease is assessed based on the date on which the underlying asset is made available for the Company’s use by the lessor. The Company’s assessment of the lease term reflects the non-cancelable term of the lease, inclusive of any rent-free periods and/or periods covered by early-termination options which the Company is reasonably certain of not exercising, as well as periods covered by renewal options which the Company is reasonably certain of exercising. The Company also determines lease classification as either operating or finance at lease commencement, which governs the pattern of expense recognition and the presentation reflected in the consolidated statements of operations over the lease term.
For leases with a term exceeding 12 months, a lease liability is recorded on the Company’s consolidated balance sheet at lease commencement reflecting the present value of its fixed minimum payment obligations over the lease term. A corresponding right-of-use (“ROU”) asset equal to the initial lease liability is also recorded, adjusted for any prepaid rent and/or initial direct costs incurred in connection with execution of the lease and reduced by any lease incentives received. For purposes of measuring the present value of its fixed payment obligations for a given lease, the Company uses its incremental borrowing rate, determined based on information available at lease commencement, as rates implicit in its leasing arrangements are typically not readily determinable. The Company’s incremental borrowing rate reflects the rate it would pay to borrow on a secured basis and incorporates the term and economic environment of the associated lease.
For the Company’s operating leases, fixed lease payments are recognized as lease expense on a straight-line basis over the lease term. For leases with a term of 12 months or less, any fixed lease payments are recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term and are not recognized on the Company’s consolidated balance sheet as an accounting policy election. Leases qualifying for the short-term lease exception were insignificant. Variable lease costs are recognized as incurred.
Segment and Reporting Unit Information
Operating segments are defined as components of an entity for which discrete financial information is available that is regularly reviewed by the Chief Operating Decision Maker (“CODM”) in deciding how to allocate resources to an individual segment and in assessing performance. A committee consisting of the Company’s executives is determined to be the CODM. The Company has three operating segments as of December 31, 2021. See Note 18, “Segment Information”.
The Company accounts for income taxes under the asset and liability method, in which deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax consequences attributable to differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases and operating loss and tax credit carry forwards. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized in operations in the period that includes the enactment date. A valuation allowance is required to the extent any deferred tax assets may not be realizable.
ASC Topic 740, Income Taxes, (“ASC 740”), also clarifies the accounting for uncertainty in income taxes recognized in an enterprise’s financial statements and prescribes a recognition threshold and measurement process for financial statement recognition and measurement of a tax position taken or expected to be taken in a tax return. For those benefits to be recognized, a tax position must be more-likely-than-not to be sustained upon examination by taxing authorities. ASC 740 also provides guidance on derecognition, classification, interest and penalties, accounting in interim periods, disclosure and transition. Based on the Company’s evaluation, it has been concluded that there are no significant uncertain tax positions requiring recognition in the Company’s consolidated financial statements. The Company believes that its income tax positions and deductions would be sustained on audit and does not anticipate any adjustments that would result in material changes to its financial position.
The Company recognized deferred revenue related to its acquisition of Whinstone, which consists primarily of advance payments received, and is recognized on a straight-line basis over the remaining life of the contract or upon completion of the installation of the customers’ equipment.
The Company recognized upfront license fees from Ceva Santé Animale S.A. (“Licensee”) related to its exclusive license agreement (“License Agreement”), which have been recorded as deferred revenue and are being amortized over the term of the License Agreement. Amortization of the license fees totaling approximately $1.6 million began in July 2012.
Contract assets consist of costs and estimated earnings in excess of billings on uncompleted contracts and unearned revenue consists of billings in excess of costs and estimated earnings on uncompleted contracts.
Cost of Revenues
Mining: Cost of revenues consists primarily of direct production costs of mining operations, including electricity, labor, insurance and, in 2020, rent for the Oklahoma City facility and, in 2021, the variable Coinmint hosting fee, but excluding depreciation and amortization which are separately stated.
Hosting: Cost of revenues consists primarily of direct power costs, rent and compensation costs.
Engineering: Cost of revenues consists primarily of direct materials and labor, as well as indirect manufacturing costs.
The Company accounts for share-based payment awards exchanged for services at the estimated grant date fair value of the award. Stock options issued under the Company’s long-term incentive plans are granted with an exercise price equal to no less than the market price of the Company’s stock at the date of grant and expire up to ten years from the date of grant. These options generally vest on the grant date or over a one- year period.
The Company estimates the fair value of stock option grants using the Black-Scholes option pricing model and the assumptions used in calculating the fair value of stock-based awards represent management’s best estimates and involve inherent uncertainties and the application of management’s judgment.
Expected Term - The expected term of options represents the period that the Company’s stock-based awards are expected to be outstanding based on the simplified method, which is the half-life from vesting to the end of its contractual term.
Expected Volatility - The Company computes stock price volatility over expected terms based on its historical common stock trading prices.
Risk-Free Interest Rate - The Company bases the risk-free interest rate on the implied yield available on U. S. Treasury zero-coupon issues with an equivalent remaining term.
Expected Dividend - The Company has never declared or paid any cash dividends on its common shares and does not plan to pay cash dividends in the foreseeable future, and, therefore, uses an expected dividend yield of zero in its valuation models.
The Company elected to account for forfeited awards as they occur, as permitted by ASU 2016-09, Compensation – Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Improvements to Employee Share-Based Payment Accounting (“ASU 2016-09"). Ultimately, the actual expenses recognized over the vesting period will be for those shares that vested.
Income (loss) Per Share
Basic net income (loss) per share (“EPS”) of common stock is computed by dividing net income (loss) by the weighted average number of shares of common stock outstanding during the period. Diluted EPS reflects the potential dilution that could occur if securities or other contracts to issue common stock were exercised or converted into common stock or resulted in the issuance of common stock that then shared in the earnings of the entity. The Company excludes its unvested restricted share units (“RSUs”) and the holdback of 70,165 shares as security for the ESS Metron sellers’ indemnification obligations under the membership interest purchase agreement from the net loss per share calculation.
Since the Company has only incurred losses, basic and diluted net loss per share is the same. Securities that could potentially dilute loss per share in the future were not included in the computation of diluted loss per share at December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019 because their inclusion would be anti-dilutive are as follows:
Recently Issued and Adopted Accounting Pronouncements
The Company continually assesses any new accounting pronouncements to determine their applicability. When it is determined that a new accounting pronouncement affects the Company’s financial reporting, the Company undertakes a study to determine the consequences of the change to its consolidated financial statements and assures that there are proper controls in place to ascertain that the Company’s consolidated financial statements properly reflect the change.
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-13, Financial Instruments-Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments, which was codified with its subsequent amendments as ASC 326, Financial Instruments – Credit Losses. ASC 326 seeks to provide financial statement users with more decision-useful information about the expected credit losses on financial instruments, including trade receivables, and other commitments to extend credit held by a reporting entity at each reporting date. The amendments require an entity to replace the incurred loss impairment methodology in other U.S. GAAP with a methodology that reflects current expected credit losses and requires consideration of a broader range of reasonable and supportable information to inform credit loss estimates. The updated guidance is effective for the Company for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2022, and early adoption is permitted. In connection with the Company’s acquisitions during the year ended December 31, 2021, the Company adopted this standard on January 1, 2021 and the adoption did not have a material impact on the financial statements and related disclosures.
In December 2019, the FASB issued ASU 2019-12, “Income Taxes (Topic 740): Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes (“ASU 2019-12”), which is intended to simplify various aspects related to accounting for income taxes. ASU 2019-12 removes certain exceptions to the general principles in Topic 740 and also clarifies and amends existing guidance to improve consistent application. This guidance is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2020, with early adoption permitted. The Company adopted this standard on January 1, 2020 and the adoption did not have a material impact on the financial statements and related disclosures.
In May 2021, the FASB issued ASU 2021-04, Earnings Per Share (Topic 260), Debt-Modifications and Extinguishments (Subtopic 470-50), Compensation-Stock Compensation (Topic 718), and Derivatives and Hedging-Contracts in Entity’s Own Equity (Subtopic 815-40), (“ASU 2021-04”). This ASU reduces diversity in an issuer’s accounting for modifications or exchanges of freestanding equity-classified written call options (for example, warrants) that remain equity classified after modification or exchange. This ASU provides guidance for a modification or an exchange of a freestanding equity-classified written call option that is not within the scope of another Topic. It specifically addresses: (1) how an entity should treat a modification of the terms or conditions or an exchange of a freestanding equity-classified written call option that remains equity classified after modification or exchange; (2) how an entity should measure the effect of a modification or an exchange of a freestanding equity-classified written call option that remains equity classified after modification or exchange; and (3) how an entity should recognize the effect of a modification or an exchange of a freestanding equity-classified written call option that remains equity classified after modification or exchange. This ASU will be effective for all entities for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2021. An entity should apply the amendments prospectively to modifications or exchanges occurring on or after the effective date of the amendments. Early adoption is permitted, including adoption in an interim period. The adoption of ASU 2021-04 on January 1, 2022 did not have a material impact on the Company’s financial statements or disclosures.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/disclosureRef